India (Manipur)


Conflict Summary

Manipur has faced insurgency since the late 1960s as a consequence of widespread feelings by the state’s different ethnic groups of central neglect. Although the Meitei, Kuki and Naga groups have a history of peaceful coexistence, they began to turn against each other as endemic poverty and unemployment gave rise to inter-communal resentment, resulting in the proliferation of dozens of armed groups. Multiple attempts have been made to establish coalitions between numerous militant groups, including the Indo-Burma Revolutionary Front (1990) and the Coordination Committee (2011), but the state remains beset by internecine ethnic and factional violence as well as violence against security forces. Further complicating this situation, Naga groups have claimed most of the territory of Manipur as part of ’Greater Nagalim’. Naga armed groups such as National Socialist Council of Nagalim–Isak Muivah (NSCN–IM) and NSCN–Khaplang (NSCN–K) operate in these districts, causing considerable anxiety amongst Meitei and Kuki groups there; the government’s August 2015 Framework Agreement with NSCN–IM has intensified local fears of the bifurcation of Manipur. In June 2015, an NSCN–K-led ambush on an Indian Army patrol killed 18 soldiers in one of the most lethal attacks against the Indian security forces in recent years.