The Nagaland conflict dates back to the establishment of the independent Indian state in 1947, when the Nagas in the northeast challenged their integration within the Indian Union. Although sections of the separatist movement have signed various peace agreements with the Indian government, insurgents who reject the Indian constitutional framework continue to fight for Naga independence. The two major remaining groups are the Nationalist Socialist Council of Nagalim–Isak Muivah (NSCN–IM) and the NSCN–Khaplang (NSCN–K), named after their respective leaders. The two groups are the result of a violent schism within the original NSCN in 1988; both continue to fight each other as they vie for political influence and recognition, while numerous sub-factions have broken away from the two groups. NSCN–IM signed a ceasefire with the government in 1997 and has retained its commitment to talks through a series of dialogues and framework agreements. The government ceasefire signed in 2001 with NSCN–K expired in 2015, marking the end of a seven-year lull in violence. Despite the 2015 ‘Framework Agreement’ agreed by the government and NSCN–IM, durable peace in the state remains elusive.