Ethno-religious violence has been a longstanding obstacle to domestic security for many decades in Nigera. The most recent and violent challenge to national security is the Boko Haram uprising in northern Nigeria, which unleashed a brutal wave of violence, seeking to impose Sharia law across the country. Boko Haram, which has pledged allegiance to the Islamic State, also known as ISIS or ISIL, was largely unknown until 2009, but it is now prevalent in the northeastern Borno, Yobe and Adamawa states – where it overwhelmed security forces. A regional military force made up of Nigerian troops and those from neighbouring countries has had considerable success against the group. However, suicide bombings, massacres and kidnappings continue on a near-daily basis. Another challenge in Nigeria is the cyclical ethno-religious violence in the country’s Middle Belt region, most notably in Kaduna and Plateau states. The massacres have a distinct religious undertone but are driven by ethnic and economic factors such as the rights to grazing lands.