Desiring an independent Islamic state, militant groups in Russia’s North Caucasus republics of Chechnya and Dagestan have coordinated a campaign against Russian federal government forces and representatives. The recent conflict can broadly be split into two periods, the 1994-96 Chechen conflict, and the present conflict which began in 1999. Moscow has allegedly resorted to repression and human-rights abuses in its efforts to control the Chechen population, and Chechen rebel groups have grown increasingly extreme in their tactics, alienating much of the local population, even while spreading the insurgency across the wider region. Since the 2007 installation of former rebel Ramzan Kadyrov as President of Chechnya, Moscow’s ‘Chechenisation’ strategy in the conflict seems to have worked, as relative stability has been achieved in the capital, Grozny and in much of the mountainous countryside. However, Kadyrov’s rule is far from representative, and resentment towards federally-supported authority simmers, despite the immense destruction witnessed in the region during the height of the conflict.