Conflict Summary

The Rwandan conflict is based around the main ethnic division of the majority Hutu and the minority Tutsi. After the 1994 genocide in which possibly millions of Tutsis and Hutus were massacred, Hutu rebel forces sought refuge in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), and orchestrated attacks on the Tutsi-dominated central government from there. Rwandan forces were also stationed in the DRC to combat the rebels, but by 2002, both forces had returned to Rwanda, with the Hutu Democratic Liberation Forces of Rwanda (Forces Democratiques de Liberation du Rwanda - FDLR) and Interahamwe militias largely disarmed. Rwanda is currently going through a difficult period of national reconciliation, and normalisation of relations with its neighbours. Ethnic and regional tensions remain strong, however, and the process of holding those responsible for the genocide accountable is far from over.