The collapse of the Soviet Union and its tightly centralised structure meant that the diverse regions and religions of Tajikistan were no longer content to remain within the oppressive Tajik state. The United Tajik Opposition (UTO) coalition unified Islamist and pro-democracy elements against the government in the civil war that broke out in 1992. Operating from Afghanistan, rebel forces were able to launch an intense military campaign. A comprehensive peace accord was signed in 1997 between the UTO and the Tajik government. Irregular fighting, mainly caused by unruly UTO commanders, continued but declined since the presidential elections in 1999. In early 2005 Tajikistan managed to hold for the first time peaceful, if flawed, parliamentary elections.